Quick Answer: How Does Reproduction Fit Into Overall System Of Efficient Livestock Production?

How is reproduction to the livestock industry important?

Reproductive success in livestock is essential for the economic livelihood of producers and ultimately affects the consumer cost of meat and other animal products. In many livestock production systems, poor fertility is a major factor that limits productivity.

What is reproduction efficiency?

Numbers that would define reproductive efficiency for most herds would include a 90% to 95% pregnancy rate, less than 2% abortion rate, and 65%, 88%, and 100% of the calves born by days 21, 42, and 65 of the calving season, respectively. Efficiency is synonymous with optimums, not maximums.

Why is understanding reproduction and genetics so important to livestock producers?

Advances in animal breeding, genetics, and genomics are facilitating a more efficient industry. This was largely possible because genetic advancements led better animal feed efficiency, which is critical to improving livestock production and lowering costs for producers.

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How reproductive performance be improved and its efficiency be increased?

“Reproductive efficiency improves when you have a bigger-picture focus, preparing animals year-round for breeding, calving, breeding back and repeating the cycle,” says Pohler. “Ultimately, you have to find technologies and management practices that work for you.”

What are the two types of reproduction?

There are two types of reproduction: asexual and sexual reproduction. Though asexual reproduction is faster and more energy efficient, sexual reproduction better promotes genetic diversity through new combinations of alleles during meiosis and fertilization.

Do any animals reproduce asexually?

Animals that reproduce asexually include planarians, many annelid worms including polychaetes and some oligochaetes, turbellarians and sea stars. Many fungi and plants reproduce asexually. Some plants have specialized structures for reproduction via fragmentation, such as gemmae in liverworts.

How do you measure reproduction efficiency?

The percentage reproductive efficiency was ob- tained by dividing twelve, the ideal number of breeding months for the pro- duction of a calf, by the determined average number of breeding months per calf.

What are the causes of low breeding efficiency?

Evidence is presented which indicates that a low rate of fertilization and a high rate of embryonic mortality are the major factors causing the low seasonal breeding efficiency associated with high ambient temperature and humidity in lactating dairy cows.

What do u mean by reproduction?

1: the act or process of reproducing specifically: the process by which plants and animals give rise to offspring and which fundamentally consists of the segregation of a portion of the parental body by a sexual or an asexual process and its subsequent growth and differentiation into a new individual.

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What is methods of livestock genetic improvement?

Innovations such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer and genomic selection have all dramatically increased the rate of genetic gain in food animal breeding programs.

What is P generation?

The parental generation refers to the first set of parents crossed. The parents’ genotype would be used as the basis for predicting the genotype of their offspring, which in turn, may be crossed (filial generation). These two plants comprise the parental generation (P generation).

What are the reasons for breeding animals?

Breeding is done for different reasons:

  • Production of food products (e.g. dairy, meat, eggs)
  • Production of non- food products (e.g. wool, leather)
  • Sports.
  • Companions.
  • Maintaining rural areas.
  • Medical applications/research.
  • Preservation of minor breeds, e.g. Jacob sheep.
  • Reintroduction programmes, e.g. golden lion tamarins.

What are three methods of reproduction management?

Breeding Systems

  • Hand mating. This method involves selecting the buck/ram for the doe/ewe and mating them.
  • Pen breeding. In pen breeding, the buck/ram is put in a pen of does/ewes to facilitate their mating.
  • Artificial insemination (AI).
  • Out-of-season breeding.

How can efficiency of breeding be improved?

The breeding efficiency can be greatly enhanced by lowering the interval between successive pregnancies. The wise general policy is to breed for the first time at an early age and to rebreed at almost the earliest opportunity after each pregnancy. In this way the lifetime efficiency is increased.

What factors affect reproductive efficiency?

Two factors that contribute significantly to reproductive efficiency are conception rate and loss of pregnancy.

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